Manufacturing / Production is the process through which raw material or semi-finish good change into finished product. Manufacturing Process is a system which changes sets of input into desired sets of output.
Types of Manufacturing Processes:
Basic three types of manufacturing Processes.
- Job / Project Manufacturing Process
- Mass / Batch Manufacturing Process
- Flow / Continuous Manufacturing Process
Job / Project Manufacturing Process:
A job or project production process is a process in which one or few products are produced as per requirement & specification of customer or desired & need of customer.
It is used in large- & small-scale system. The products which are manufactured in this production process such as aircrafts, Ships, automobiles, laptops & watches.
Mass / Batch Manufacturing Process:
Mass or batch production process is a process in which limited quantities of each types of different products are manufactured on the same set of machines, and different products are produced separately one after the other.
It is used for large scale system. The products which are manufactured in this system such as nuts, bolts, screw etc.
Flow / Continuous Manufacturing Process:
Flow or continuous production process in which huge quantity of product is produced at the same time and set of machines / equipment arrange according to the sequence of operations.
In this process, different products will be required different manufacturing line since one line covered one product only. It is used for huge scale system. The products which are manufactured in this process such as cigarettes, bulbs, and toffees etc.
Layout is an act or process of planning and designing or arrangement of operations, machines equipment or tools for producing the required product.
Types of layouts:
Four main types of layout.
- Function / process layout
- Continuous / product layout
- Fixed point layout
- Hybrid layout
Function / process layout:
The process layout is a layout in which arrangement of facilities are grouped together according to their functions. That’s why it is also called as function layout. The function layout is recommended for batch or mass production.
In this layout, all machines performing similar type of operations are grouped at one location. This layout is normally used when the production volume is not sufficient to justify a product layout.
Continuous / product layout:
In this type of layout, machineries and auxiliary facilities are situated according to the processing sequence of product. The product layout is selected when the volume of product is high such as it is used in flow or continuous production system.
Fixed point layout:
In this type of layout, main component remains in a fixed location and materials, machinery, and men, are brought to this location.
This is also called as project type layout and recommended for job or project production because it is suitable when one or few pieces identical heavy product to be manufactured.
Hybrid layouts is a combination of process & product layout. A hybrid layout is possible when an item is being made different types and sizes, but process grouping is then arranged in a sequence to manufactured various types and sizes of product.